What practical psychological knowledge is there in life? (First Part)

1. Flywheel effect
Most people should have had this experience: After a holiday, returning to work always feels extremely difficult, anxious and clueless. This is the "flywheel effect".
The flywheel effect means that in order to make a stationary flywheel rotate, you must use a lot of effort at the beginning to push it again and again. It turns faster and faster.
So if there is something to do tomorrow, it’s best to start doing it today. Everything is difficult at the beginning, but if you start well in advance and enter the working state ahead of time, it will not be so painful afterwards.

2. Threshold effect
Once a person accepts a trivial request from others, it is possible to accept a larger request. This kind of phenomenon is like when climbing a gate, you have to climb step by step, so that you can climb high places more easily and smoothly.
People are willing to accept smaller requirements that are easier to complete. After the smaller requirements are fulfilled, everyone will slowly accept the larger requirements.

3. Pygmalion effect
In essence, people's emotions and ideas will be affected subconsciously by others to varying degrees. People will unconsciously accept the influence and hints of people they like, admire, trust and admire.
When you want to persuade a person to do something and are not sure, you can entrust a person who is more convinced or admired to persuade him, which can greatly increase the success rate.

4. Aronson effect
Refers to the psychological phenomenon of gradually negative attitude as the reward decreases, and gradually positive attitude as the reward increases. Performance is: people like those people or things whose likes, rewards, and praises continue to increase, but do not like those whose likes, rewards, and praises continue to decrease.
If you want a person to like you, you must not give him too much reward at the beginning, because once the high reward is placed at the beginning, then as the rewards become less and less later, he will treat you Attitudes will become increasingly negative.
This principle applies when giving gifts between relatives, friends, and lovers.

6. The cup effect
Through the distance of the cups, you can test the inner distance between two people. If you have someone who wants to further develop the relationship, ask him out for a cup of milk tea, quietly shorten the distance between the two cups when talking, and observe the reaction of the other person.
If he doesn't move, it means that your relationship has a chance to deepen. If he moves or takes it away immediately, it proves that he is still wary of you. For the time being, keep the status quo.
Try how the person you like feels about you.

7, the first cause effect
The first cause effect was first proposed by the American psychologist Lochins. It is also called the first effect, priority effect or first impression effect. It refers to the influence of the first impression formed by the two parties on the relationship in the future, that is, "first impression". The effect brought about.
Although these first impressions are not always correct, they are the most vivid and firmest, and determine the course of future exchanges between the two sides. If a person leaves a good impression when they meet for the first time, then people are willing to get close to him and get to know each other quickly, and it will affect people's interpretation of his subsequent behaviors and performances.
On the contrary, for a person who arouses disgust at the first meeting, even if it is difficult to avoid contact with him for various reasons, people will be very indifferent to him, and in extreme cases, even psychologically and practically. The state of confrontation.

8. Proximate effect
The recency effect means that with the emergence of multiple stimuli, our impression formation mainly depends on the latest stimulus.
In an intimate relationship, as the time to get along gets longer and more stimulation, then the proximate effect will replace the first cause effect, and the latecomers will prevail.
It is not difficult to explain why a peaceful breakup brings better memories to both parties, and the two people who have torn apart will grit their teeth with resentment when they think about it in the future.

9. Broken window effect
There is a phenomenon in psychology research called the "broken window effect", that is, if a house has a broken window, no one will repair it, and soon other windows will be broken somehow.
On a wall, if some graffiti appears and is not cleaned off, soon the wall will be full of mess and unsightly things. In a very clean place, people would be embarrassed to throw rubbish, but once there is rubbish on the ground, people would throw rubbish without hesitation, without feeling ashamed.
Any bad thing, if it is not stopped at the beginning, and after the atmosphere is formed, it cannot be changed. It is like a river bank. If a small gap is not repaired in time, the dam can collapse and cause millions of times losses. This is an exponential level. The "out of order" process carried out.

10. The effect of decentralization of responsibility
This is a life-saving psychological knowledge, but I hope you will never use it.
When there are many bystanders, the responsibility of rescue is scattered on everyone. Everyone feels that "so many people, I don’t have the responsibility to be the first bird." When there is only one person, he will feel the heavy responsibility of rescue. More likely to help.
So when you are in danger, it is not very useful to shout "Help". Tell the characteristics of the person closest to you and ask for help. It is more hopeful to get help, such as shouting "The curly-haired boy in red and black AJ, please help. help me".

10. Overlapping effect
In a tandem memory activity, if the memorized things are similar, it is not good for preserving memory.
This is because when things with the same content repeatedly appear, things of the same nature are forgotten due to mutual inhibition and interference. Kohler named this phenomenon the "overlap effect".
It can be seen that when we are learning Chinese characters, foreign words and other things, we must be careful not to group similar things together, which will easily produce overlapping effects. If you want to study together, at least some of the materials are very familiar, which may have an assimilation effect, assimilating the unfamiliar materials into the materials that have been memorized.

11. Halfway effect
Halfway effect refers to a negative impact on the target behavior due to the interaction of psychological factors and environmental factors when reaching halfway in the motivation process. A lot of facts show that the suspension period of human target behaviors mostly occurs in the vicinity of "halfway", and near the midpoint of human target behaviors is an extremely sensitive and extremely fragile active area.
There are two main reasons for the halfway effect. One is the rationality of target selection. The more unreasonable the target selection, the more likely it is to have halfway effect; the other is personal willpower. People with weaker willpower are more likely to have halfway effect.
Behaviouralists put forward the method of "big goals, small steps", which is of positive significance for preventing the occurrence of halfway effects.

12. Freud's slip of the tongue
Sometimes when people are in a hurry, they will say a word that is close to but not the same as the word they intended to say, and this situation reflects the individual's unconscious motivation and anxiety.
Slippage is not accidental, on the contrary, the content of slippage is often a reflection and portrayal of the true thoughts deep in the heart.

13, the sour grape effect
When you feel frustrated because your real needs cannot be met, in order to relieve your inner anxiety, you will fabricate some "reasons" for self-comfort, so as to eliminate tension, reduce stress, free yourself from dissatisfaction, anxiety and other negative psychological states, and protect yourself From harm.
Life phenomenon: When I am not admitted by this institution, I will say that the salary of this institution is not high, or the cultural atmosphere is not good.

14, suggestive effect
The suggestive effect refers to the use of implicit and abstract indirect methods to influence people's psychology and behavior without confrontation, thereby inducing people to act in a certain way or accept certain opinions, making their thoughts, behaviors and suggestions Meet the expectations of the readers.
Generally speaking, children are more likely to accept cues than adults, and verbal cues are commonly used in management. For example, when a class teacher praises good behavior in a group setting, it is a suggestion to other students.

15. False universality effect
In order to enhance our self-image, we often show such a strange tendency: to overestimate or underestimate the degree to which others will think and act like us, and in terms of viewpoints, we will overestimate the degree to which others praise our viewpoint. To support one's own position, this phenomenon is called the false universal effect.
If we do something wrong or a task fails, we may think that these mistakes are normal to reassure ourselves. After we lie to others, we begin to feel that others are also dishonest, if we treat another person If we are interested, we will overestimate the other person’s opinion of ourselves.

16, the birdcage effect
Hang a beautiful bird cage in the most conspicuous part of the room. After a few days, the owner will definitely make one of the following two choices: throw the bird cage away, or buy a bird back and put it in the bird cage.
This is the birdcage logic. The process is very simple. Imagine that you are the owner of this room. As long as someone walks into the room and sees the birdcage, they can't help but ask you: "What about the bird? Is it dead?" When you answer : "I have never raised a bird." People will ask again, "So, what do you want a birdcage for?" In the end you have to choose between two options, because it is much easier than endless explanations. .
The reason for the birdcage logic is that most of the time people adopt inertial thinking, so it can be seen how important it is to cultivate logical thinking in daily life and work.

17. South wind effect
Also known as the Law of Warmth, it means that in interpersonal communication, gentle communication methods can make people feel psychologically comfortable, while "cold" communication methods can make people uncomfortable. get along.
You want your friend to do something for you. If you use the tone of demand and command, the other party may not be willing, but if you talk to the other party well and praise the other party, the other party will usually agree to help you and get along with your partner and stranger. Also applies.

18. The labeling effect
Don't label yourself lightly. A classic term in psychology, "label effect", means that once a person is drawn to a certain conclusion, he will consciously act according to this conclusion just like a product is labeled with a certain kind of label.
During the Second World War, American psychologists conducted an experiment. They recruited a group of new soldiers who were undisciplined, did not obey orders, and had relatively stubborn personalities. They asked the soldiers to write a letter to their family every month, to the effect that Tell me how he fought the enemy bravely on the battlefield, and he obeyed discipline and command. It was just such a small change. After half a year, psychologists discovered that these soldiers had really changed as stated in the letter.
When we put a positive label on ourselves, our life will improve little by little. On the contrary, once we put a negative label, or even exaggerate the harm of the negative label, we will drag ourselves into the swamp of negative energy.

19. Close-door effect
This psychological effect means that when you make a big request, the other party rejects you, and then you make a small request, the other party is basically embarrassed to refuse. For example, if you imagine that a friend borrowed 50 yuan, first borrowed 100 yuan from him, but was rejected; and then borrowed 50 yuan from him, it would be difficult for him to refuse.
With this trick, you can also make an appointment with someone you like easily. For example, if you want to ask your sweetheart to have a meal, then you first propose to go somewhere to play with him, and if he agrees directly , Then you will earn; if you reject the previous one, it is naturally unlikely that you will refuse to go to dinner with you.

20. Romeo and Juliet Effect
When there are external forces that interfere with the love relationship between the lovers, the emotions of the lovers will strengthen, and the relationship will become stronger.
Two people who truly love each other are inseparable. They will seriously solve every small problem in their relationship, face external pressure together, and will not be affected by some unfavorable factors. They will willingly sacrifice for each other, maybe To give up a good job may be to work hard in an unfamiliar city.
If you are separated due to external factors, don't find excuses to say that the time is short and the distance is long. Your parents don't agree. It's just that one of you doesn't love enough, or loves yourself more.

21. Cocktail party effect
In a noisy environment, such as a cocktail party, our brain will make judgments about the surrounding sounds, selectively listening to the important sounds, and ignoring the unimportant sounds. When someone calls our name, we can always notice it immediately.
So when you talk to others, please use their name or nickname. This will make them like you more. Names are important to people, and people like to hear their own names.

22. Intermittent strengthening
This concept was discovered by the psychologist Skinner in an experiment. He put three cats in three different devices. The first cat will give food to the cat when he touches the button, and the second cat will give food even if he touches the button. Cat food is also randomly given, and the third cat touches the button and does not give it food. The result of the experiment is that the second cat touches the button the most frequently.
In a relationship, this kind of random reward can also increase the enthusiasm of the lover. If he finds you every time, you will be responsive. Over time, he will naturally feel that this kind of relationship is not challenging and cause slack; but if you always After disappointing him all the time, he would easily give up directly.
Only by giving a random response can the other party be unable to guess what you are in. Every time they look for you with an eagerness to try, but not sure whether they will respond, it is just as addictive as gambling. In this way, there will be a steady stream of freshness, and you can't stop it.
Intermittent reinforcement is one of the smartest "taming" methods and can be used in moderation.

23. Attribution bias
When observing the behavior of others, we often attribute the behavior of others to character or ignore external factors to explain it, while analyzing our own behavior on the contrary, it is often caused by the environment.
For example, when a couple quarrels, you often feel that your anger is caused by environmental stimuli, while the other person's anger is because of a bad temper.

24. Barnum Effect
Constellation personality is actually a kind of "Barnum effect." Barnum effect means that when you face a very vague personality description, you will involuntarily substitute yourself into it.
This is how the constellations describe people. Each constellation only depicts a part of the complex heart of human beings, and it is very vague. Most people will think that it is "so accurate." Because people are multi-faceted, it's normal to be pricked. In fact, these things are applicable to anyone, and a lot of routines can be avoided by recognizing this effect.

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