Pele's life is a great, glorious, and legendary life. It is a life of how a black player from a slum in Brazil established Brazil's national self-confidence through football and promoted the status of blacks in Brazil and the international arena.
He changed the world through football.
After the outbreak of the Second World War, in the entire blue star, only South America retained the vitality for football.
In 1950, Brazil, which had just ended the 15-year authoritarian rule of President Vargas, was eager to declare to the international community through the first World Cup after World War II that Brazil, which was in the process of rapid modernization, had successfully shaken off the burden of colonialism and slavery. , is a respectable opponent.
To this end, the Brazilians built the Maracana Stadium, which can accommodate about 200,000 spectators.
After it was built, Rio's "Evening News" broadcast to the world with enthusiasm:
"Now we have a stage of incredible capacity to let the world see us and praise our strong sport."
But in the heart, the Brazilians always have doubts:
Can underdeveloped tropical countries compete successfully with those European and American countries that regard them as "barbarians"?
In the end, the final that symbolized the change of Brazil's status in the modern world in the eyes of Brazilians ended with "Maracana failure".
The whole of Brazil fell into a deathly silence.
A few years later, Pele recalled this "the worst defeat in contemporary Brazilian history":
At that time, the atmosphere in my hometown was very dignified and very sad. It was like the end of a war. Brazil was defeated and many people died. For us, this loss was no less than that of Hiroshima.
After "Maracana failed", Brazilian playwright Nelson Rodriguez proposed the "mongrel complex" in Brazil's national character:
The panicked mongrel rummages through the trash, hoping to find some leftovers.
Brazil, such a complex country moistened by the Amazon River and integrating immigrants from Europe, Asia and Africa, has unimaginable cultural complexity:
On the one hand, Gilberto Freyre, a prominent Brazilian cultural anthropologist and sociologist, sees Brazil's tropical mestizos as "not only a mixture of races, but a fusion of European technology and the psychic powers of America and Africa." ";
On the other hand, the inferiority complex and helplessness deeply buried in the Brazilians make them have a "mongrel plot".
For Brazilians, the failure of the Maracana represented a colossal failure of Brazil as a country:
"Brazilians can't do miracles"
After the "Maracana failure", the black and mixed-race Brazilian football team was discriminated against and excluded by white people.
After losing to Hungary in 1954, the black and mixed race in the Brazilian team began to be questioned by white people:
White people are disciplined, dignified, face-saving, decent, and self-respecting; while you black people or mixed races have no discipline, no dignity, no respect for yourself, too laissez-faire, and do whatever you like.
The Brazilians in the green field panicked;
The Brazilians outside the football field are still immersed in the frustration and inferiority brought by the "Maracana failure" to a generation of Brazilians, and are slowly implementing their own "import substitution" economic model.
At this time, the Cold War conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union was gradually escalating, and the two sides were intensifying in their struggle to win over the third world camp.
In 1955, the Czech-Brazilian Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira, who proposed the economic development policy of "energy and transportation", was nominated by the Brazilian Labor Party and the Social Democratic Party to win the presidential election.
On January 31, 1956, Kubitschek was sworn in.
As one of the greatest presidents in the minds of Brazilians, he did three small things during his tenure:
Moved the capital from Rio de Janeiro to its new Brasilia, fulfilling Brazil's long-cherished wish of moving the capital for centuries
Put forward the slogan "five years is equivalent to fifty years", which rapidly promoted the industrialization of Brazil
Maintain friendly exchanges with the United States, advocate the "Pan American Action", and support the Alliance for Progress
If there was one more thing to add, it was that during his tenure the Brazilian earned the recognition the world craves.
The biggest cornerstone is the powerful Soviet Union.
At the peak of the Cold War, both the United States and the Soviet Union liked to exaggerate each other's strength (in order to obtain more funding).
But in football, the Soviet Union is indeed much stronger than the US team - the US team at that time was a standard fishy, while Soviet football won the Olympic gold medal two years ago.
In this context, the 1958 World Cup in Switzerland, known as one of the greatest World Cups in World Cup history, came.
In the current World Cup, the Soviet Union was in a group with Brazil, England and Austria.
Amidst the controversy, Vicente Fiola, the founder of the 4-2-4 formation and the immortal imager of Brazilian football in international football, was hailed as "from the beginning to the end of the game" a few months after his recruitment. Feet like a king's shoe shine boy Bailey.
In the first two games, the two teams also defeated Austria and drew with England.
In the last game of the group stage, the two teams faced off.
During the game, the 17-year-old Pele made his World Cup debut as a substitute. Shortly after playing, Pele assisted Vava to rewrite the score to 2:0 and help Brazil seal the victory.
After defeating the Soviet Union, the strategy of choosing to befriend the United States at that time caused the American media to start touting the Brazilian team.
After winning the championship, the American "Time Magazine" reported as follows:
They [the Brazil national team] showed another concept of modern football, they manipulated the uncontrollable football as easily as they controlled the cotton balls tied to their feet.
Subsequently, the Brazilian went all the way and met the Swedish team on the final stage.
Because both teams wore yellow jerseys, the organizers asked the Brazilians to wear the visiting team jerseys. Brazil don't have an away jersey, and officials from the Brazilian Football Association refused to wear the white jerseys worn by the team before 1954 because of the "Maracana failure".
As a last resort, Brazilian officials went out and bought blue T-shirts and then sewed the Brazil team logo on the clothes.
As a result, Pele, who scored the only goal against Wales in the knockout round and performed a hat-trick against France with Fontaine, scored two goals again, helping Brazil win the championship and winning the title that the Brazilians longed for eight years ago. The whole world affirms it.
The color scheme of the classic home and away jerseys that the Brazilian team has inherited to this day has also been finalized.
The birth of Pele in 1958 successfully dispelled the "mongrel plot" in Brazil. His background as a poor black boy who used leather shoes to subsidize his family became the most inspirational object in the history of this emerging country in Brazil—the Brazilian people, regardless of Blacks, mixed races, and whites all regard this new star as Brazil's hope, and even a symbol of Brazil's liberation and unity.
Especially the boys in the slums, they seem to see themselves in Bailey, and hope that one day, they can be like Bailey.
Thus, Pele began to become synonymous with Brazil:
"Where do you come from?"
"Oh, Bailey's Country."
Brazilian football has completely become a fusion agent, a bond between people of all walks of life.
In Brazil, as long as you love football, as long as you show football talent, you can unite under the Brazilian green flag regardless of religion, race, poverty or wealth.
In Brazil, the government only represents some people, but the Brazilian national team represents everyone. Whenever there is social turmoil in Brazil, a large number of people will wear Brazil jerseys and take to the streets to express their demands.
The legend of Pele and the national self-confidence of the football kingdom originated from the victory against the Soviet Union in 1958.
After the 1958 World Cup, the "King of Football" was officially born and became the title that accompanied Pele for life.
After Brazil won the championship, the Brazilian people gained the long-sought national self-confidence of "Brazilians have stood up since then", and the Brazilian economy began to take off:
Through the industrial nationalization movement relying on a large number of foreign debts, we will vigorously develop national industries and take the road of industrial revolution. From 1967 to 1974, Brazil's annual economic growth rate reached 10.1%, and a relatively complete industrial system was initially established, creating the first "golden age" of Brazil's modern economy. In the mid-1970s, Brazil entered the middle-income Level.
However, since 1964, the National Renewal League, which is composed of soldiers, has gradually begun to be a dictatorship, and almost all technical personnel of the Brazilian national team have been replaced by soldiers.
In the increasingly tense domestic atmosphere, the 29-year-old Pele ushered in the 1970 World Cup in Mexico.
In the 1970 World Cup in Mexico, the "global TV live broadcast" and "color TV live broadcast" technologies were used in the broadcast of the World Cup for the first time
In the final of the World Cup, which is widely recognized as the most exciting in history, Pele, who opened the scoring for the Brazilian team, defeated the two-star Italian team 4:1, permanently retaining the Rimit Cup and becoming World Cup history The only king in the world who has won three World Cups as a player.
That World Cup was more important for the country, and if Brazil had lost the 1970 World Cup, it would have been much worse and the whole country could have taken a breather when we were champions.
In 1975, in order to develop football, the Americans invited Pele, who announced his retirement in 1974, to come back to play for the New York Cosmos.
The New York Cosmos even invited Secretary of State Kissinger to conduct diplomatic lobbying, and finally persuaded the Brazilians to abandon the national treasure ban of "Pelé cannot play abroad". The then US President Ford personally met Pele and hoped that Pele could help The United States develops football.
Bailey did just that.
In June 1975, Bailey officially started his journey in the American Major League against the Dallas Cyclones.
The game ended 2:2, but Pele's debut attracted more than 300 reporters from 22 countries in the football desert of the United States; with the help of CBS, one of the largest television stations in the United States, a total of 10 million people watched it in the United States After this game, audiences in more than 30 countries around the world knew the American Major League through Pele.
Before Bailey landed in the United States, the average attendance record of the American major leagues was set by the Philadelphia Atoms, but 11,500 people; but after Bailey came to the Big Apple, the New York Cosmos raised the average attendance of the American major leagues to 34,000 , And successfully attracted Beckenbauer, Cruyff and others to join, which greatly promoted the popularity of football in the United States.
If you want to talk about the enlightenment of the United States on soccer, it must be Pele.
After winning the American League Championship for the New York Cosmos, Bailey ushered in the end of his career.
On October 1, 1977, at the Giants Stadium, Pele's only two club teams, the New York Cosmos and Santos, started the last dance of the king.
In the farewell game, he represented the New York Cosmos and Santos each played half a game. The world watched the game on ABC.
Pele bid farewell to his playing career after chanting "Love" three times with the audience of 77,000.
I was born for football as Beethoven was born for music.
He who changed the world with football and Beethoven who changed the world with music met in heaven.
Author: Steven Ting
Cofounder of www.cykapu.com, father of two children. As a man over 30, only write the thing i am interesting in.